2.12 Bibliography

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Alexander, A J 1985 Palynological, stratigraphic and chemical analyses of sediments in the Lothians with Particular reference to the Lateglacial. Unpublished PhD Thesis: University of Edinburgh.

Anderson, D E, Binney, H A & Smith, M A 1998 ‘Evidence for abrupt climate change in northern Scotland from 3900-2500 calendar years BP’, The Holocene 8, 97–103.

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Ballantyne, C K 2018 ‘After the ice: late glacial and Holocene landforms and landscape evolution in Scotland’, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 110, 133–71. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175569101800004X

Ballantyne, C K & Small D 2018 ‘The last Scottish ice sheet’, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 110, 93–131. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755691018000038

Barber, K E, Chambers, F M & Maddy, D 2003 ‘Holocene palaeoclimates from peat stratigraphies: macrofossil proxy climate records from three oceanic raised bogs in England and Ireland’, Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 521–39.

Beamish, D & Smythe, D K 1986 ‘Geophysical images of the deep crust: The Iapetus suture’, Journal of the Geological Society, 143(3), 489-97.

Bennett, K D 1984 ‘The post-glacial history of Pinus sylvestris in the British Isles’, Quaternary Science Reviews 3, 133–55

Bennett, K D & Birks, H J B 1990 ‘Post-glacial history of alder (Alnus glutinosa (L) Gaertn.) in the British Isles’, Quaternary Science Reviews 5, 123–134

Birks, H J B 1989 ‘Holocene isochrone maps and patterns of tree-spreading in the British Isles’, Journal of Biogeography 16, 503–40

Blinkhorn, E & Milner, N 2013 Mesolithic research and conservation framework. York, Council for British Archaeology.

Bond, G, Showers, W, Cheseby, M, Lotti, R, Almasi, P, deMenocal, R, Priore, P, Cullen, H, Hajdas, I & Bonani, G 1997 ‘A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates’, Science 278, 1257–66.

Boulton, G S, Peacock, J D & Sutherland, D G 2002 ‘Quaternary’, in Trewin N H (ed) The Geology of Scotland (4th Edition). The Geological Society: London, 403–30.

Boyd, W E 1988 ‘Cereals in Scottish antiquity’, Circaea 5(2), 101–10.

Boyd, W E and Dickson, J H 1986 ‘Patterns in the geographical distribution of the early Flandrian Corylus rise in south-west Scotland’, New Phytologist 102, 615–23.

Brewer, S, Giesecke, T, Davis, B A S, Finsinger, W, Wolters, S, Binney, H, de Beaulieu, J-L, Fyfe, R, Gil-Romera, G, Kuhl, N, Kunes, P, Leydet, M & Bradshaw, R H 2017 ‘Late glacial and Holocene European pollen data’, Journal of Maps 13, 921–28.

Brooks, S J & Birks, H J B 2000 ‘Chironomid-Inferred Late-Glacial Air Temperatures at Whitrig Bog, Southeast Scotland’, Journal of Quaternary Science 15(8), 759–64.

Brooks, S J, Mayle, F E & Lowe, J J 1997 ‘Chironomid- Based Lateglacial Climatic Reconstruction for Southeast Scotland’, Journal of Quaternary Science 12(2), 161–7.

Brooks, S J, Matthews, I P, Birks, H H & Birks, H J B 2012 ‘High Resolution Lateglacial and Early-Holocene Summer Air Temperature Records from Scotland Inferred from Chironomid Assemblages’, Quaternary Science Reviews 41, 67–82.

Burgess, C 1984 ‘The prehistoric settlement of Northumberland’, in R Miket and C Burgess (eds) Between and Beyond the Walls. John Donald: Edinburgh, 26–175.

Burke, M J 1969 ‘The Forth Valley: An Ice-Moulded Lowland’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 48, 51–5.

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Cayless, S M, & Tipping, R M 2002 ‘Data on mid-Holocene climatic, vegetation and anthropogenic interactions at Stanshiel Rig, southern Scotland’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 11(3), 201–10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2341966

Chadwick, R A, and Holliday, D W 1991. Deep crustal structure and Carboniferous basin development within the Iapetus convergence zone, northern England. Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol 148, 41–53.

Chambers, F M & Elliot, J 1989 ‘Spread and expansion of Alnus Mill. in the British Isles: timing, agencies and possible vectors’, Journal of Biogeography 16, 541–50.

Chambers, F M & Price F M 1985 ‘Palaeoecology of Alnus (alder): early post-glacial rise in a valley mire, north-west Wales’, New Phytologist 101, 333–44.

Clark, C D, Hughes, A L C, Greenwood, S L, Jordan, C & Sejrup, H P 2012 ‘Pattern and Timing of Retreat of the Last British-Irish Ice Sheet’, Quaternary Science Reviews 44, 112–46.

Clark, C D, Evans, D J A, Khatwa, A, Bradwell, T, Jordan, C J,  Marsh, S H, Mitchell, W A & Bateman, M D 2004 ‘Map and GIS Database of Glacial Landforms and Features Related to the Last British Ice Sheet’, Boreas 33 (4), 359–75.

Clarkson, E & Upton, B 2006 Edinburgh Rock: The Geology of Lothian. Dunedin Academic Press: Edinburgh.

Clarkson, E & Upton, B 2010 Death on an Ocean: A Geological Borders Ballad. Dunedin Academic Press: Edinburgh.

Coope, G R 1968 ‘Fossil beetles collected by James Bennie from Late Glacial silts at Corstorphine’, Edinburgh Scottish Journal of Geology 4 339–48.

Croombe, P 2018 ‘Abrupt cooling events during the Early Holocene and their potential impact on the environment and human behaviour along the North Sea basin (NW Europe)’, Journal of Quaternary Science 33, 353–67.

Cullingford, R A & Smith, D E 1966 ‘Late-glacial shorelines in eastern Fife’, Transactions of the Institute of  British Geographers 39, 21–38.

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Dansgaard, W, White, J W C & Johnsen, S J 1989 ‘The abrupt termination of the Younger Dryas climate event’, Nature 339, 532–4.

Dark, P 2000 The environment of Britain in the first millennium AD. Sutton: Stroud.

Dockrill, S J 2002 ‘Brochs, economy and power’, in Ballin-Smith, B and Banks, I (eds) In the Shadow of the Brochs: the Iron Age in Scotland, Tempus: Stroud, 153–62.

Dumayne-Peaty, L 1998 ‘Human impact on the environment during the Iron Age and Romano British times: palynological evidence from three sites near the Antonine Wall’, Journal of Archaeological Science 25, 203–14.

Dumayne-Peaty, L 1999a ‘Late Holocene human impact on the vegetation of south-eastern Scotland: a pollen diagram from Dogden Moss, Berwickshire’, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 105, 121–41.

Dumayne-Peaty, L 1999b ‘Continuity or discontinuity? Vegetation change in the Hadrianic-Antonine frontier zone of northern Britain at the end of the Roman occupation’, Journal of Biogeography 26, 643–65.

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Everest, J, Bradwell, T, & Golledge, N 2005 ‘Subglacial Landforms of the Tweed Palaeo-Ice Stream’, Scottish Geographical Journal 121(2), 163–73.

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Finlayson, A, Merritt, J, Browne, M, Merritt, J, McMillan, A & Whitbread, K 2010 ‘Ice sheet advance, dynamics, and decay configurations: evidence from west central Scotland’, Quaternary Science Reviews 29(7–8), 969–88.

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Girling, M A 1988 ‘The bark beetle Scolytus scolytus (Fabricius) and the possible role of elm disease in the early Neolithic’, in Jones, M (ed) Archaeology and the Flora of the British Isles, Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 14: Oxford, 34–8.

Girling, M A & Greig, J R A 1985 ‘A first fossil record for Scolytus scolytus (F.) (Elm bark beetle): its occurrence in elm decline deposits from London and the implications for Neolithic Elm disease’, Journal of Archaeological Science 12, 347–51.

Godwin, H 1975 History of the British Flora. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Golledge, N R 2009 ‘Glaciation of Scotland During the Younger Dryas Stadial: A Review’, Journal of Quaternary Science 25 (4), 550–66.

Greig, D C 1971 British Regional Geology: The South of Scotland (3rd Edition) H.M.S.O.: Edinburgh.

GUARD Archaeology Ltd 2014 Viewing the Holocene: vegetation history of Ravelrig Bog, Kirknewton, Edinburgh. http://archaeologyreportsonline.com/PDF/ARO13_RavelrigBog.pdf

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Hanson, WS 1996 ‘Forest clearance and the Roman army’, Britannia 27, 354–58.

Harinarayana, T, Hutton, V, Jones, P 1993 ‘Lateral variations of conductivity structure across Southern Scotland and Northern England’ Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 81, 25–41.

Harrison, S, Anderson, E & Patel, D 2006 ‘The Eastern Margin of Glaciation in the British Isles During the Younger Dryas: The Bizzle Cirque, Southern Scotland’, Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography 88(3), 199–207.

Harrison, S, Bailey, R M, Anderson, E, Arnold, L & Douglas, T 2010 ‘Optical Dates from British Isles ‘Solifluction Sheets’ Suggests Rapid Landscape Response to Late Pleistocene Climate Change’, Scottish Geographical Journal 126(2), 101–11.

Helema, S, Lindholm, M, Timonen, M, Merilainen, J & Eronen, M 2002 ‘The supra-long Scots pine tree-ring record for Finnish Lapland: Part 2, interannual to centennial vaiability in summer temperatures for 7500 years’, The Holocene 12, 68–687.

Hibbert, F A & Switsur, V R 1976 ‘Radiocarbon dating of Flandrian pollen zones in Wales and Northern England’, New Phytologist 77, 793–807.

Higham, N J 1986 The Northern Countries to AD 1000. Longman: London.

Hirons, K R & Edwards, K J 1986 ‘Events at around the first and second Ulmus declines: palaeoecological investigations in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland’, New Phytologist 104, 131–53.

Holloway, L K, Peacock, J D, Smith, D E & Wood, A M 2002 ‘A Windermere Interstadial Marine Sequence: Environmental and Relative Sea-Level Interpretations for the Western Forth Valley, Scotland’, Scottish Journal of Geology 38(1), 41–54.

Hughes, P D, Mauquoy, D, Barber, K E and Langdon, P G 2000 ‘Mire-development pathways and palaeoclimatic records from a full Holocene peat archive at Walton Moss, Cumbria, England’, The Holocene 10(4), 465–79.

Hughes, A L C, Clark, C D & Jordan, C J 2010 ‘Subglacial bedforms of the late British Ice Sheet’, Journal of Maps 6, 543–63.

Hughes, A L C, Clark, C D, & Jordan, C J 2014 ‘Flow-Pattern Evolution of the Last British Ice Sheet’, Quaternary Science Reviews 89, 148–68.

Hunter, F 1997 ‘Iron Age hoarding in Scotland and Northern England’, in A Gwilt and C Haselgrove (eds) Reconstructing Iron Age societies. New approaches to the British Iron Age. Oxbow Monograph 71: Oxford, 108–33.

Huntley, B 1993 ‘Rapid early Holocene migration and high abundance of hazel (Corylus avellana L): alternative hypotheses’, in Chambers F M (ed) Climate change and human impact on the landscape. Chapman and Hall: London, 205–15.

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Jones, R L & Keen, D H 1993 Pleistocene Environments in the British Isles. Chapman & Hall: London.

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Kelly, P M, Leuschner, H H, Briffa, K R and Harris, I C 2002 ‘The climatic interpretation of pan-European signature years in oak ring-width series’, The Holocene 12(6), 689–94. 

Kirby, J P 1968 ‘The Ground Moraines of Midlothian and East Lothian’, Scottish Journal of Geology 4(3), 209–20.

Kitchener, A 2014 ‘The woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigeniys, in Scotland’, The Edinburgh Geologist 56 9–14

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Langdon, P G, Barber, K E & Hughes, P D M 2003 ‘A 7500-year peat-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction and evidence for an 1100-year cyclicity in bog surface wetness from Temple Hill Moss, Pentland Hills, southeast Scotland’, Quaternary Science Reviews 22(2-4), 259–74.

Lawson, T J 1984 ‘Reindeer in the Scottish quaternary’, Quaternary Newsletter 42, 1–7.

Leuschner, H H, Sass-Klassen, U, Jansma, E, Baillie, M G L & Spurk, M 2002 ‘Subfossil European bog oaks: population dynamics and long term growth depressions as indicators of change in the Holocene hydro-regime and climate’, The Holocene 12, 695–706.

Lowe, J J, Brooks, S J  & Mayle, F E 1997 ‘The Late Devensian Lateglacial palaeoenvironmental record from Whitrig Bog, SE Scotland. 2. Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera)’, Boreas 26(4), 297–308.

Lowe, J J, Birks, H H, Brooks, S J, Coope, G R, Harkness, D D, Mayle, F E, Sheldrick, C, Turney, C S M & Walker, M J C 1999 ‘The Chronology of Palaeoenvironmental Changes During the Last Glacial-Holocene Transition: Towards an Event Stratigraphy for the British Isles’, Journal of the Geological Society, London 156(2), 397–410.

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McAdam, A D & Tulloch, W 1985 ‘Geology of the Haddington district: Memoir for 1:50 000 sheet 33W and part of Sheet 41’ British Geological Survey Scotland.

Macklin, M G, Johnstone, E and Lewin, J 2005 ‘Pervasive and long-term forcing of Holocene river instability and flooding by centennial-scale climate change’, The Holocene 15, 937–43.

Mannion, A M 1978 ‘Late Quaternary Deposits from Linton Loch, Southeast Scotland I. Absolute and Relative Pollen Analyses of Limnic Sediments’, Journal of Biogeography 5(2), 193–206.

Mayle, F E, Lowe, J J & Sheldrick, C 1997 ‘The Late Devensian Lateglacial Palaeoenvironmental Record from Whitrig Bog, SE Scotland. 1. Lithostratigraphy, Geochemistry and Palaeobotany’, Boreas 26(4), 279–29.

McCabe, A M, Clark, P U, Smith, D E & Dunlop, P 2007 ‘A Revised Model for the Last Deglaciation of Eastern Scotland’, Journal of the Geological Society 164(2), 313–16.

McLellan, A G 1969 ‘The last glaciation and deglaciation of central Lanarkshire’, Scottish Journal of Geology 5(3), 248–68.

Mellars, P A & Dark, S P (eds) 1998 Star Carr in context. MacDonald Institute for Archaeological Research: Cambridge.

Mercer, R 2018 Native and Roman on the Northern Frontier: Excavations and Survey in a Later Prehistoric Landscape in Upper Eskdale, Dumfriesshire. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh.

Mitchell, G F 1948 ‘Late-Glacial Deposits in Berwickshire’, New Phytologist 47(2), 262–4.

Mitchell, W A 2008 ‘Quaternary Geology of Part of the Kale Water Catchment, Western Cheviot Hills, Southern Scotland’, Scottish Journal of Geology 44(1), 51–63.

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Newey, W W 1968 Pollen analyses from south-east Scotland Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 40:4, 424-434, DOI: 10.1080/03746606808685166

Newey, W W 1970 ‘Pollen Analysis of Late-Weichselian Deposits at Corstorphine, Edinburgh’. The New Phytologist, 69 (4), 1167–77. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2430999

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Oram, R 2014 ‘The worst disaster suffered by the people of Scotland in recorded history’: climate change, dearth and pathogens in the long 14th century, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 144, 223–44. https://doi.org/10.9750/PSAS.144.0223

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Parker, A G, Goudie, A S, Andersen, D E, Robinson, M A & Bonsall, C 2002 ‘A review of the mid-Holocene elm decline in the British Isles’, Progress in Physical Geography 26, 1–45.

Peacock, J D 2002 ‘Macrofauna and palaeoenvironment of marine strata of Windermere Interstadial age of the east coast of Scotland’, Scottish Journal of Geology 38(1), 31–40.

Pearce, D, Rea, B R, Bradwell, T & McDougall, D 2014 ‘Glacial geomorphology of the Tweedsmuir Hills, Central Southern Uplands, Scotland’, Journal of Maps 10(3), 457–65.

Pigott, C D & Huntley, J P 1981 ‘Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata at the northern limits of its geographical range. III. Nature and causes of seed sterility’, New Phytologist 87, 817–39.

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Rackham, O 2007 Woodlands. William Collins: London.

Ragg, J M & Futty, D W 1967 The Soils of the Country Round Haddington and Eyemouth (Sheets 33, 34 and Part 41). (Memoirs of the Soil Survey of Great Britain, Scotland). Her Majesty’s Stationery Office: Edinburgh.

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Simmons, I G 1996 The environmental impact of later Mesolithic cultures. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh.

Sissons, J B 1969 ‘Drift stratigraphy and buried morphological features in the Grangemouth-Falkirk-Airth area, central Scotland’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 48, 19–50.

Sissons, J B & Rhind, D W 1970 ‘Drift Stratigraphy and Buried Morphology Beneath the Forth at Rosyth’, Scottish Journal of Geology 6(3), 272–84.

Sissons, J B, Smith, D E & Cullingford, R A 1966 ‘Late-Glacial and Post-Glacial Shorelines in South-East Scotland’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 39, 9–18.

Spurk, M, Leuschner, H H, Baillie, M G L, Briffa, K R & Friedrich, M 2002 ‘Depositional frequency of German sub-fossil oaks: climatically and no-climatically induced fluctuations in the Holocene’, The Holocene 12, 707–16.

Staines, K E H 2009 The Glacial Geomorphology of the Tweed Valley and Surrounding Area, Eastern British Isles. Unpublished MSc dissertation: University of Durham.

Stone, P & McMillan, A A 2013 ‘Regional Geochemical Patterns in SE Scotland: Source Lithology, Inheritance and Glacial Overprinting’, Scottish Journal of Geology 49, 33–40.

Stone, P, McMillan, A A, Floyd, J D, Barnes, R P & Philips, E R 2012 British Regional Geology: South of Scotland (4th Edition). British Geological Survey: Keyworth, Nottingham.

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Tallantire, P A 2002 ‘The early Holocene spread of hazel (Corylus avellana L) in Europe north and west of the Alps: an ecological hypothesis’, The Holocene 12, 81–96.

Tight, J A 1987 The late Quaternary history of Wester Branxholme and Kingside Lochs, south-east Scotland. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Reading.

Tipping, R ‘1992 The determination of cause in the generation of major prehistoric valley fills in the Cheviot Hills, Anglo Saxon border’, in Needham S & Macklin, M G (eds) Alluvial archaeology in Britain. Oxbow: Oxbridge, 111–121.

Tipping, R 1994 ‘The form and fate of Scotland’s woodlands’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 124, 1–54. https://doi.org/10.9750/PSAS.124.1.54

Tipping, R 2000 ‘Accelerated geomorphic activity and human causation: problems in proving links in the proxy records’, in Nicholson, R A and O’Conner, T P (eds) People as agents of environmental change 1–5. Oxbow Books: Oxford.

Tipping, R 2002 ‘Climate variability and marginal settlement in upland British landscapes: a re-evaluation’, Landscapes 3, 10–28

Tipping, R 2010 The case for climatic stress forcing choice in the adoption of agriculture in the British Isles.  https://storre.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/26324/1/Landscapes%20in%20Transition.pdf

Tipping R & Halliday, S P 1994 The age of alluvial fan deposition at a site in the southern uplands of Scotland Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 19, 4. 333–48.

Tisdall, E W 2000 Holocene climate change in Glen Affric, northern Scotland. A multiproxy approach. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Stirling.

Turney, C S M, Harkness, D D, Lowe, J 1997 ‘The use of microtephra horizons to correlate Late-glacial lake sediment successions in Scotland’, Journal of Quaternary Science, 12(6) 525–31.

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Veen, M van der 1992 Crop husbandry regimes: an archaeological study of farming in northern England 1000 BC – AD 500. Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield: Sheffield.

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Webb, J A & Moore, P D 1982 ‘The Late Devensian Vegetational History of the Whitlaw Mosses, Southeast Scotland’, New Phytologist 91(2), 341–98.

Whittington, G, Edwards, K J & Caseldine, C J 1991 ‘Late- and post-glacial pollen-analytical and environment data from a near-coastal site in north east Fife’, Scotland Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 68:1–2 65–85.

Wickham-Jones, C R & Collins, G H 1980 ‘The sources of flint and chert in northern Britain’ Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 109, 7–21. https://doi.org/10.9750/PSAS.109.7.21

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Young, J A T 1966 Analysis of Glacial Deposits Near Fala, Midlothian. Unpublished PhD thesis: University of Edinburgh.

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Zvelebil, M 1994 ‘Plant use in the Mesolithic and its role in the transition to farming’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60, 25–74.