Three discrete practices/traditions are attested, namely:
- Burial in a passage tomb (and, initially, in a closed megalithic chamber) – a practice relating to the Atlantic façade, Breton ‘strand’ of Neolithisation
- Burial in a non-megalithic long rectangular or trapezoidal mound (and, over time, square and heel-shaped mounds) – a practice relating to the ‘Carinated Bowl Neolithic’
- Burial in a cave – a practice whose cultural affiliation is uncertain; it certainly does not represent a survival of a Mesolithic practice, since in Scotland there is no evidence for Mesolithic burial in caves.
During the second quarter of the fourth millennium there is an intriguing interplay between traditions (1) and (2), as outlined below.
1. The passage tomb tradition: Arguably the earliest evidence for the Breton tradition is provided by the Greadal Fhinn monument on the Ardnamurchan Peninsula (MHG70), in the southwest part of Highland Region (Fig. 5.68; Henshall 1972, 358–60). This consists of a squarish closed chamber and a simple passage tomb with a small, low round cairn, and it is very similar to the monument at Achnacreebeag, Argyll and Bute (Ritchie 1970), around 50 km to the ESE, which contained Breton Late Castellic style pottery. A further simple monument at Rahoy (MHG488), c. 18 km from Greadal Fhinn (Henshall 1972, 360), may well be of the same kind. Neither has been excavated, and both have been badly disturbed and robbed. It may be that targeted excavation might uncover traces of human remains or grave goods. The monuments form part of a west Scottish cluster of such monuments (Fig. 5.69.1), which itself is part of a broader distribution of Breton-style monuments in the west of Britain and around the northern half of the coast of Ireland (Fig. 5.69.2). As argued elsewhere (eg Sheridan and Schulting 2020), these could well date as early as c. 4000 BC; firm dating evidence is badly needed. (Cremated remains from one such monument at Moleigh, Argyll and Bute, produced a date of 3715–3645 cal BC, but it is unclear whether that relates to primary or secondary use of that monument: ibid, 196.)
A subsequent northwards and eastwards expansion of the use of passage tombs can be traced (presumably as the population of farmers grew: Fig. 5.70), and over the generations, slightly larger, more complex and regionally diverse types of passage tomb emerged, including those labelled by Audrey Henshall as ‘Orkney-Cromarty’ (O-C) passage tombs (Henshall 1972). The first phase monument at Balvraid, Lochalsh (MHG5357; Fig. 5.70, top right;ibid, 558–9), with its simple, non-compartmentalised passage tomb and small round cairn, is likely to be an early example of this process; it is particularly disappointing that the grave goods, including sherds of Neolithic pottery, were lost, presumably by the excavator, John Corcoran (Henshall and Ritchie 2001, 230–2). No human remains were found there.
A further example of a very similar passage tomb design is known from the first-phase monument at Tulach an t-Sionnaich, Caithness (MHG926; Fig. 5.71.1), one of the chamber tombs around Loch Calder also excavated by Corcoran (Davidson and Henshall 1991, 146–9). One of the unburnt individuals buried there has recently been radiocarbon-dated to the 38th century BC (Sheridan and Schulting 2020, fig. 18.4), demonstrating that this expansion out of the west of Scotland occurred rapidly. Recent dating of individuals from the ‘Orkney-Cromarty’ chamber tombs around Loch Calder at Tulloch of Assery A and B (MHG981; MHG932; Fig. 5.70, bottom; ibid) suggests that these tombs were in use around the same time as, or slightly later than, the first-phase monument at Tulach an t’Sionnaich; Bayesian modelling of the dates for these tombs, and for Tulach an t’Sionnaich, Rattar East, Caithness (MHG8910) and Embo, Sutherland (MHG11630), indicates an overall start date for these monuments of 3840–3645 BC (Fig. 5.70, bottom; ibid, 201).
The chambers in the passage tombs at Tulloch of Assery A and B, like those of other O-C passage tombs, are internally divided by projecting slabs, and the rectangular shape of the chamber at Tulloch of Assery B resembles the ‘stalled’ chamber shape of many passage tombs in Orkney, underlining the close connections between the northern mainland and Orkney – although no Orcadian example has been dated as early as the Caithness ones. (The slightly oval shape of other O-C chambers, as at Tulloch of Assery A, is also paralleled in Orkney.) While Tulloch of Assery B has a round cairn, in common with many other O-C passage tombs, that of Tulloch of Assery A is roughly rectangular, and of ‘short horned’ type – a design associated with the Carinated Bowl Neolithic tradition. This interplay between two discrete traditions will be discussed below.
The passage tomb at Rubh’ an Dunain, Skye (Rudh’ an Dunain; MHG4901; Fig. 5.70 middle, right; Henshall 1972, 485–8), excavated by W. Lindsay Scott in 1931 (Scott 1932), is a good example of the regional variant of passage tombs that developed in the Hebrides, with its funnel-shaped passage. This monument, and other ‘Hebridean’-type passage tombs on Skye, attests to the close links that existed between communities in the Inner and Outer Hebrides. While some of the artefactual finds from Rubh’ an Dunain survive in National Museums Scotland, others were lost, and the human and animal remains are almost certainly lost as well: they were sent to osteologist M.L. Tildesley at the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) in London for identification, and much of the RCS’ collection of human remains was destroyed by a bomb during World War II. There is no record of the remains having been transferred to the Natural History Museum, and so they are assumed to have been destroyed.
2. The funerary tradition associated with the Carinated Bowl Neolithic. Elsewhere in Scotland, the range of funerary practices associated with the initial stages of the CB Neolithic includes deposition of remains in rectangular timber mortuary structures (also known as ‘linear zone structures’: Kinnes 1992a), followed by their burning down and being covered by long or round mounds (as for example at Dalladies, Kincardineshire, with its trapezoidal horned long mound: Piggott 1972). An alternative practice, attested for example at Boghead, Moray (Burl 1984), is open-air cremation followed by encapsulation within a round or long mound. (See Sheridan 2010c on Neolithic non-megalithic round mounds in Scotland.) It is also believed that rectangular timber or ditch-defined enclosures, such as the ones at Douglasmuir, Angus or Inchtuthil, Perth and Kinross, could have served as mortuary enclosures where corpses were deposited to decompose naturally (Sheridan and Schulting 2020, fig. 18.2) No example of a timber ‘linear zone’ mortuary structure has yet been found in Highland Region, despite an erroneous claim for one at Culduthel (Phase 9: Van Wessel 2012) – although one cannot rule out the possibility that the Culduthel structure could have been a mortuary enclosure, or else a cursus – a type of monument that may have evolved from mortuary enclosures (Fig. 5.73). The arrangement of postholes at Culduthel does not resemble that of a linear zone mortuary structure (cf. Kinnes 1992a), and the monument in question is more likely to be a cursus monument, as noted in Section 5.6.4. Similarly, there is no example of an Early Neolithic open-air cremation site or non-megalithic round mound.
Nevertheless, the existence of non-megalithic long mounds in Highland Region has been proposed by Ian Kinnes (1992a; 1992b; cf. Henshall 1972, 158–62). The four candidates that he proposed (Kinnes 1992b, 83), all unexcavated, are at Lairg, Sutherland (NGR NC 586071); Carn Liath, Easter Ross (MHG8715); Craig an Amalaidh, Sutherland (MHG11762); Edderton Hill, Easter Ross (MHG8657, incorrectly listed there as a chambered long cairn in the HER). They range in length between 23 m and 62 m and in width, between 14 and 15 m. Without targeted excavation, it is impossible to confirm whether these are indeed non-megalithic long mounds dating to the early fourth millennium BC, so this constitutes an outstanding research question that needs to be addressed.
One example of a chambered long mound is the monument at Cladh Aindreis on the Ardnamurchan Peninsula, Lochaber (Harris et al 2010) This clearly belongs to the CB tradition of funerary monument building that is found mostly in west and southwest Scotland and is known as the Clyde cairn tradition. Such monuments constitute the translation into stone of the non-megalithic monuments of the earliest CB Neolithic, and their development is discussed elsewhere (Sheridan and Schulting 2020).
With other chambered long mounds in Highland Region, the story is more complex, with remarkable developments occurring in the centuries leading up to c. 3500 BC.
The first of these developments features the imposition of a rectangular, square or heel-shaped cairn on top of (or around) a pre-existing passage tomb with a round cairn – thereby imposing a monument type associated with one Neolithic tradition on examples from a different tradition, the passage tomb tradition. The most obvious example of this is the encompassing of two passage tombs within an enormous (60.5 x 17 m) trapezoidal long horned cairn, with ‘blind’ horned facades at either end, at Camster Long, Caithness (MHG1809; Fig. 5.71.1; Davidson and Henshall 1991, 96–102). Among the many other examples of this ‘appropriation and cultural rebranding’ phenomenon in Highland Region are the incorporation of the simple passage tomb at Tulach an t’Sionnaich, Caithness (MHG926), first within a horned, heel-shaped cairn and then within a long cairn (Fig. 5.71.2; ibid, 146–9); and the incorporation of a similar simple passage tomb with small round cairn into a short rectangular cairn at Balvraid, Lochalsh (MHG5357; Fig. 5.70, top right; Henshall 1972, 558–9) and into a short horned cairn at Ormiegill, Caithness (MHG2184; Fig. 5.71.3; Davidson and Henshall 1991, 129–30).While none of these enlargements has been dated, the existence of a long horned cairn at Point of Cott, Orkney, whose initial use has been radiocarbon-dated to the 36th/35th century BC (Sheridan and Schulting 2020, fig. 18.6), indicates that such monuments were clearly in use by that time.
Not only was there superimposition of CB Neolithic-style rectilinear cairns on pre-existing round-cairn passage tombs: at Tulloch of Assery A, Caithness (MHG981), it appears that a monument of hybrid design, featuring two Orkney-Cromarty style passage tombs set within a short horned cairn, was constructed (Fig. 5.70, middle right; Davidson and Henshall 1991, 157–9). Radiocarbon dating of human remains from within this monument shows that it was in use as early as the 37th/36th century BC (Sheridan and Schulting 2020, fig. 18.4).
The second, and related development, was that of the aggrandisement of funerary monuments. This is exemplified by Camster Long (MHG1809) and the several other monuments where a long cairn was superimposed on one or more pre-existing round cairn; the final monument form was truly impressive. It may be, as argued elsewhere (ibid, 205), that this was an expression of a process of competitive conspicuous consumption on funerary monuments, where neighbouring groups tried to out-do each other in the magnificence of the monuments devoted to honouring their dead. The dating of this process still leaves much to be desired, so any opportunity that may be afforded to date the construction of long horned cairns in Highland Region needs to be taken.
3. Cave burial. The recent radiocarbon dating by Jessica Bownes of unburnt humanremains from a cave at Loch Borralie, Sutherland, to 3710–3543 cal BC or 3653–3524 cal BC (the latter being a recalibration using a method known as FRUITS: Bownes 2018; Knight et al 2020, 164), confirms that in Highland Region, as in Argyll and Bute and Moray, people were being buried in caves prior to c. 3500 BC. As discussed elsewhere (Sheridan and Schulting 2020), there is no Mesolithic precedent for this practice in Scotland, unlike elsewhere in Britain. In the absence of grave goods (except for a single flint arrowhead from Raschoille Cave near Oban, Argyll and Bute), it is impossible to determine the cultural identity of the deceased, since cave burial does not feature in the funerary traditions of the Continental forbears of our earliest farmers in Brittany or Nord-Pas de Calais. Analysis of the DNA of several individuals from Raschoille Cave (Brace et al 2019) has revealed that their genetic ancestry does indeed lie in Continental Europe, and that in three cases (Brace pers. comm.) there had been intermixing between immigrant farmers and indigenous hunter-fisher-foragers.
4. Other practices. The intriguing discovery, during fieldwork connected with the creation of the Inverness-Dingwall gas pipeline in 1992, of a pit containing calcined bone, a leaf-shaped arrowhead, charcoal and ‘coarseware pottery’ (MHG8342), needs to be investigated and radiocarbon dated to check whether this is an example of an Early Neolithic practice of depositing cremated remains in a simple pit. The bone needs to be examined osteologically to check whether it is human; the pottery needs to be identified by a pottery specialist; the charcoal needs to be identified; and the calcined bone and charcoal (if of short-lived species) needs to be radiocarbon dated.