Archaeological Science

Karen Milek and Richard Jones (eds)

With contributions from: Richard Bates, Cathy Batt, Paul Bishop, Kate Britton, Graeme Cavers, Ruby Ceron-Carrasco, Matthew Collins, Gordon Cook, Dave Cowley, Anne Crone, Alastair Dawson, Sue Dawson, Ian J. Fairchild, Oliver Craig, Andy Dugmore, Richard Jones, Peter Langdon, Roderick McCullagh, Kathleen McSweeney, Ingrid Mainland, Karen Milek, Anthony Newton, Sue Ovenden, Eva Panagiotakopulu, Ed Schofield, Marian Scott, Finlay Stuart, Scott Timpany, Richard Tipping, Lyn Wilson, Rob Wilson

Abbreviations used throughout:

  • ED-XRF Energy-dispersive
  • XRF FT IR Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry
  • ICP-ES (MS) Inductively coupled emission spectrometry (mass spectrometry)
  • NAA Neutron activation analysis
  • ORA Organic residue analysis
  • SAGES Scottish Alliance for Geosciences and Society
  • SEM Scanning electron microscope
  • SEM-EDAX SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis
  • XRD X-ray diffraction
  • XRF X-ray fluorescence spectrometry



Selection of the Lewis chessmen. Analysis of the chessmen has revealed that they were carved from walrus ivory, probably the work of five different craftsmen, most likely in the 12th or 13th centuries AD in Trondheim, Norway ©NMS

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