List of Abbreviations

Below is a list of abbreviations used throughout the carved stones chapters, with their full expansion. Links are provided where needed.

3D Three-dimensional 

ACCORD Archaeology Community Co-production of Research Data  

AMD Ancient Monuments Division 

BEFS Built Environment Forum Scotland 

BIM Building Information Modelling 

CI Co-Investigator 

CSAP Carved Stone Adviser Project 

CSDAP Carved Stone Decay in Scotland Project 

ECMS Early Christian Monuments of Scotland (Allen and Anderson 1903) 

EH English Heritage (now also HE

HE Historic England 

EMSSS Early Medieval Stone Sculptures of Scotland 

ERA England’s Rock Art 

FCS Forestry Commission Scotland 

GIS Geographic Information Systems 

HEACS Historic Environment Advisory Council Scotland 

HEFCE Higher Education Funding Council for England 

HERALD Historic Environment Research Archives, Links and Data 

HERs Historic Environment Records 

HES Historic Environment Scotland 

HLF Heritage Lottery Fund 

HS Historic Scotland (now part of HES

ICCROM International Centre for the Study and Restoration of Cultural Property 

ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites 

ISCS International Scientific Committee for Stone [of ICOMOS] 

LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging 

MBGRG Moray Burial Ground Research Group 

NADRAP Northumberland and Durham Rock Art Project 

NAS National Archives of Scotland 

NCCSS National Committee on Carved Stones in Scotland 

NLS National Library of Scotland 

NOSAS North of Scotland Archaeology Society 

NMS National Museums of Scotland 

NTS National Trust for Scotland 

OASIS Online AccesS to the Index of archaeological investigationS 

OPIT Our Place in Time (Scottish Government 2014) 

PAS Pictish Arts Society 

PI Principal Investigator 

PKHT Perthshire and Kinross Heritage Trust 

PMSA Public Monuments and Sculpture Association 

RAPP Rock Art Pilot Project [of English Heritage] 

RCAHMS Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (now  

part of HES

RAE Research Assessment Exercise 

REF Research Excellence Framework 

RMMC Runes, Monument and Memorial Carvings network 

RSE Royal Society of Edinburgh 

RTI Reflectance Transformation Imaging 

SAFHS Scottish Association of Family History Societies 

ScARF Scottish Archaeological Research Framework 

SERF Strathearn Environs and Royal Forteviot 

SG Scottish Government 

SHEA Scottish Historic Environment Audit 

SHED Scottish Historic Environment Data 

SHEP Scottish Historic Environment Policy (Historic Scotland 2011) 

SRP Scotland’s Rural Past 

SUAT Scottish Urban Archaeological Trust 

SWAPNET Stone Weathering and Atmospheric Pollution Network 

TCRE Technical Conservation Research and Education 

UK United Kingdom 

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation 

WMF World Monuments Fund 

WWI/II First World War/Second World War