1.6 Structure of PKARF

Document Structure

The period chapters presented are broadly in a similar format, with an Introduction; Regional Overview, which summarises the history of research and current knowledge base; and the Research Agenda with set thematic priorities followed by research questions to address knowledge gaps.

A challenge was presented by the considerable quantity of data available for the medieval period and later, and the availability of other sources, such as historic texts, maps and photographs. In order to accommodate this, there is some variation in the layout of the Regional Overviews, Research Priorities and Questions, and in the emphasis placed on monuments and material culture.

For prehistory, monument/find types are reviewed within The Extant Resource and research priorities and questions are combined together in a Research Agenda section towards the end of the chapter.

The later chapters are structured slightly differently but use consistent headings across the historic periods for easy navigation. The relevant research priorities and questions are found at the bottom of each of the individual sections.

Chronological terms

The chronological chapters within have been developed in line with the Scotland’s Archaeological Periods and Ages (ScAPA) project as defined by the ScAPA thesaurus.

  • Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic (12,700–4000 BC)
  • Neolithic (4000–2450 BC)
  • Chalcolithic and Bronze Age (2450–800 BC)
  • Iron Age (800 BC–AD 350)
  • Early Medieval (AD 350–1058)
  • Medieval (AD 1058–1600)
  • Post Medieval (AD 1600–1900) and 20th century

While historians more commonly refer to ‘early modern’ and ‘modern’ periods, as outlined in its introduction, for a variety of reasons the post medieval and 20th century chapter focuses largely on pre-1945 archaeology.

Monument types

The Scottish Monument Type Thesaurus has been used throughout to describe monument types. The first time individual sites are mentioned one each page they are identified by their HER number ID (eg MPK1234) and also site names are directly hyper-linked to the national Canmore record.

Geographical terms

Sites within Perth and Kinross are identified by a locating place-name only, while those beyond are also given their modern local authority area. Occasionally the historic term ‘Perthshire’ is used. The use of ‘the area’ or ‘the region’ refers to the modern administrative area of Perth and Kinross, however.

Radiocarbon dates

All radiocarbon (14C) dates mentioned in the text are calibrated (cal) unless otherwise stated.