4.3.2 Mesolithic Activity

Various models have been proposed for settlement in the Mesolithic period.

Wicks and Mithen (2014) identified:

  1. The arrival of one or more hunter-gatherer (Mesolithic) groups into the area around 8500 BC
  2. A general increase in population until about 6200 BC
  3. A significant drop in population by about 90% by 5500 BC
  4. Low density settlement until about 4800 BC
  5. Rising population until around 4300 BC
  6. Declining population levels until about 3800 BC, at which point some Neolithic activity is observed
  7. The disappearance of Mesolithic communities by around 3400 BC

Elsewhere Mithen (2017) has proposed five stages:

  1. Exploration and pioneering settlement, prior to 7,400 BC
  2. Residential settlement, 7400–5800 BC
  3. Population decline, 5800–5000 BC
  4. Re-colonisation, 5000–3800 BC
  5. Transition to Farming, 4200–3200 BC

Waddington and Wicks (2017) have undertaken similar analysis for the east of Scotland and northeast England, and they identify a familiar pattern:

  1. Initial colonisation around 8500–8300 BC;
  2. Population spread from 8000 BC, moving into the interior around 7770 BC;
  3. Fluctuating Population, 7350–6600 BC
  4. Population reduction, 6600–7600 BC
  5. Population rise, 5600–5400 BC
  6. Decline, 5400–4800 BC
  7. Transition, 4800–4000 BC

The precise details and fluctuations vary across these models, which is only to be expected given the differing nature of the separate areas and the detail available, though the overall trends hold well. While this analysis is useful for ordering our thoughts, it is worth noting that the density of Mesolithic sites across the Highlands is significantly less than elsewhere in Scotland. This means that models like the ones above cannot simply be lifted into the Highlands. They do help to provide a nice narrative, but archaeologists have to be careful because we often do not have the precise evidence on which to confirm these narratives. It is important to make sure that researchers do not bend the evidence to confirm pre-existing paradigms drawn from elsewhere; rather they need to make use of their own sites to identify trends pertinent to the Highlands first.

Waddington’s work (2015) also addresses the impact of the loss of the Doggerland landmass. His work has implications for possible interpretations of Mesolithic settlement in the Highlands in that he suggests that land loss on this scale led to social instability. This is evidenced by the arrival of new groups with narrow blade microliths and the construction of large round structures such as those excavated at Mount Sandel, Northern Ireland (Woodman 1985) and South Echline near Edinburgh (Robertson et al 2013). While his models have been much discussed and are at present controversial, they once again provide provocative research statements that could be used to direct future investigation.

Site Area Dating SM LS Comments Source
Oliclett C 6th millennium BC or earlier x sealed by peat MHG29867; Tipping et al 2007a
Berriedale Braes C Awaiting results x Also stakeholes, pits and hearths Peteranna & Williamson 2018
Dalmore ER 4331–4056 BC
4938–4726 BC
Fill of linear feature and a hearth of a roundhouse EHG5164; SUERC-68318; SUERC-68314; Higgins & Farrell 2016
Fortrose & Rosemarkie WWW ER 7034–6700 BC Charcoal (birch) from lower fill of pit which was reused in the Bronze Age MHG60875; Fraser 2014Case Study: Fortrose and Rosemarkie Waste Water Works
Tarradale ER Awaiting results; includes 7th millennium BC x x Shell middens, on top and base of raised beach, with good preservation. Dating of artefacts and charcoal Peteranna & Brich 2017c; Tarradale Through Time website; Case Study: Tarradale Through Time
Castle St, Inverness I 7025–6462 BC 6604–5712 BC x Old dates MHG3673; Wordsworth 1985
GU-1377, GU-1376
Essich Rd, Inverness I 4230–3987 BC Charcoal at base of plough truncated pit EHG4990
Culduthel Farm Rd, Inverness I 4900–4710 BC Burnt animal bone in pit MHG48627
Slackbuie Way, Inverness I 6530–6390 BC Charcoal from lower fill of pit MHG55808; Kilpatrick 2016
Muirtown, Inverness I 4651–4345 BC x Shell midden, dated by oak charcoal MHG3741
Torbreck Farm, Inverness I 4850–4530 BC Burnt animal bone in fill of part natural depression and part cut MHG46296
Balmakeith, Nairn N 5980–5750 BC Oak charcoal in pit. No other Mesolithic artefacts MHG54960; McNichol 2011
Sand WR A number of dates spanning 8th to 6th centuries millennium BC x x Rock shelter and midden, with good preservation. Important excavation MHG29196; Hardy and Wickham-Jones 2009 (SFS 4); Case Study Sand
Camas Daraich Skye Four dates, 7th millennium BC x Lithic scatter on a raised beach, including objects of Rum bloodstone and narrow blade microliths. MHG29196; Wickham-Jones and Hardy 2004Case Study: Scotland’s First Settlers
An Corran (Site A) Skye Eight dates 7th to early 4th millennium BC x x Animal bone, and lithic and bone tools in shell midden which has multi-period activity. Other nearby sites also with lithic scatters (Sites C (SFS 30), E (SFS 101) and F (SFS 193) MHG6497; Saville et al 2012; Hardy and Wickham-Jones 2009Case Study An Corran
Staffin Bay Skye Early 7th millennium BC x Limited excavation; charred hazelnuts and bones, and lithics Lee 2016
Loch a Sguirr 1 Skye 6640–6420 BC 6222–6020 BC x x Multi-period rock shelter and midden Test pitting. MHG58707; Hardy and Wickham-Jones 2009 (SFS 8)
OxA-9305, OxA-9255
Clachan Harbour, Raasay Skye 7598–7542 BC 7353–7084 BC Lithics in and beneath peat in now intertidal zone. Additional dates show sea level change dating MHG52892; Ballin et al 2010; Cressey et al 2010
GU-17165; GU-17166
Loch Doilean Sunart L 5465–5224 BC 4596–4456 BC 4356–4235 BC x Burnt hazelnut shells from recessed platform and raised terrace. Small scale lithic working. MHG552; Ellis 2016; Ballin 2016
Risga, Loch Sunart L 5250–4600 BC 4910–4550 BC x x Excavated in 1920s, and 1990s. Good preservation. MHG148; Pollard 2000b; Ashmore 2004a
OxA-2023; OxA-3737
Kinloch Rum A number of dates, spanning all Mesolithic x Lithic working site, pits, stake holes. Multi-period activity. Further evidence nearby – see EHG5330 MHG3987; Wickham-Jones 1990; Birch 2018aCase Study Kinloch Rum
Table 4.2 Radiocarbon dated Mesolithic sites
All dates cal at 95.4% probability. For full details of dates, see Datasheet 2.1
Key: SM: shell midden; LS: Lithic scatter
Excluded from Table 4.2 are sites which have yielded Mesolithic radiocarbon dates in soil horizons which cannot be attributed to human activity, or where the Mesolithic period is considered residual. These include Balnuaran of Clava (MHG3013MHG4366),; Stoneyfield (Raigmore) cairn (MHG45834MHG54911; see Ashmore 2004a, 115),; Lochloy, Nairn (MHG54243),; Comar Wood Dun (MHG55867), and Lairg, Sutherland (though possibly representing woodland clearance; McCullach and Tipping 1998). 


Site Area SM LS Comments Source
Freswick C x Microliths and other early lithics reputedly found in multi-period links area. Re-analysis needed MHG1669; Lacaille 1954
Pullyhour C x 75 lithics including scalene micro-triangles, microliths and microburins under Bronze Age henge. Mainly flint

MHG59814; Lamdin-Whymarkand

Bradley 2011; Case Study: Pullyhour

Battle Moss C x Discovered during excavations relating to investigation of stone rows. Publication awaited MHG61689
Badanloch S x Great quantities of flint artefacts reported in 19th century. Finds said to be Mesolithic – needs examining MHG10584
Baile Mhargait, Invernaver S x Surface scatter of flaked artefacts, including one narrow blade microlith MHG11392
Littleferry S x x Midden and lithics from Mesolithic onwards. Prolific site

MHG11663; Bradley et al 2017;

Case Study: Littleferry Links

Milton of Culloden I x x Test trench. Site much disturbed MHG18470
Lower Slackbuie (ASDA site) I x Mainly Neolithic site, but Late Mesolithic artefacts, some with signs of heating

EHG3271; Garry nd;

Case Study Lower Slackbuie

Kingsteps Quarry N x Implements and flakes reputedly Mesolithic MHG6947
Culbin Sands N x x Large site overlapping into Moray, with multi-period finds Canmore 15941
Loch Garten B&S x Lithic scatter, well inland MHG51764; Saville 2007
Dunachton / Loch Insh B&S ? Various lithics associated with layer of charcoal. Possible lithic scatter

MHG4451; Wordsworth and

Harden 1986; report attached

to MHG4451

Glen Shieldaig WR x Excavated in 1970s. Large collection including one Palaeolithic point and microliths, as well as later period lithics

MHG7704; Ballin & Saville

2003; Birch 2013

Redpoint WR x Large lithic scatter eroding from dunes over a large area

MHG7639; Hardy & Wickham-Jones 2009,

site SFS 9

Applecross Manse WR x Surface collection and shovel pitting. No later material recovered

MHG37293; Hardy & Wickham-Jones 2009,

site SFS 75

Fearnmore WR x 6 test pits recovered large assemblage of lithics, including 3 microliths. Quartz predominated.

MHG37316; Hardy & Wickham-Jones

2009, site SFS 104

Lub Dubh Aird, Loch Torridon WR x Lithic scatter in intertidal zone. One possible Mesolithic scraper, the rest undiagnostic MHG54901; Hardy et al 2015
South Cuidrach Skye x Palaeolithic and Mesolithic lithics. Surface collection and testpitting, with more work planned 2020


Hardy et al 20182020

Orbost Skye x Surface collection and trial trench MHG35171
Scalpay Skye x Test pitting and surface collection at various sites by SFS project, with 5 sites producing Mesolithic lithics (Scalpay 3, 6a, 6b, 7 and 8), all but Scalpay 8 are lithic scatters

MHG37347MHG54191,  MHG58711,


Hardy & Wickham-Jones 2009,

SFS 33, 198, 195, 196, 197

Acharn Farm L x Collected from extensively ploughed field. Large percentage are flint. Includes microliths and microburins MHG497; Gray 1975
Barr River, Morvern L x Test pitting in 1970s in area disturbed by forestry work recovered Mesolithic lithics MHG489; Mercer 1979
North Barr River, Morvern L x Surface collection and limited excavation in 2010 on disturbed site. Mesolithic and later MHG53627; MacGregor 2019; Finlay 2019
Kinlochaline L ? Possibly Mesolithic lithics MHG462
Sanna Bay, Ardnamurchan L x ? Multiperiod dune site found early 20th century. Includes ‘shell heaps’, various lithic artefacts including cores MHG14370
Cul na Croise / Drynan Bay, Ardnamurchan L x Multiperiod dune site, heavily disturbed by WWII shelling. Mesolithic artefacts include flint


Engl and Peteranna in prep

Bruach Na Maorach, Kentra Bay, Ardnamurchan L ? x Small number of flint and quartz artefacts found under peat pre 1950s. Placename means Shellfish Bank MHG75
Allt Lochan na Ceardaich, Ardnamurchan L x Surface collection in 1980s after forestry ploughing MHG39319; Ballin 2016
Dahl House, Ardnamurchan L x Unstratified finds discovered when digging drains. Late Mesolithic and later MHG301; Ballin 2016
Rubh’an Achaidh Mhoir L ? x Quartz and flint artefacts found pre 1950s. Also ‘shell-refuse and bones’ MHG4157
Raonapoll Rum x Lithic scatter, disturbed by roadworks MHG58342
Laga Bholla Muck x Multiperiod lithic scatters identified through test pitting, finds include a bloodstone microlith Stephanie Piper pers comm
Table 4.3 Shell middens and lithic scatters containing Mesolithic lithics, but without radiocarbon dating

The relatively small numbers of sites mean that it is misleading to map sites and to single out significant, or interesting sites; we are merely looking at locations where recent archaeologists and communities have led to deeper research. Nevertheless, it is useful to see where activity has taken place, if only to highlight the gaps and to suggest areas for further work (Map 4.1).

Click on the data point for more information about the find and a link to the HER record. This map is based on the information in Datasheet 4.1  (please note that some finds in this datasheet may be missing from the map, for example where there are no co-ordinates for antiquarian finds, so please view the datasheet for the further information).

Although many sites manifest as lithic scatters (see Tables 4.2 and 4.3) there is a need to improve how we record and deal with scatter sites (Wickham-Jones 2020a). Curiously, though lithic scatter sites comprise a significant archaeological resource (the Highland HER records over 70 lithic scatter sites), they are often poorly understood and poorly managed. There are, for example, few scheduled lithic scatter sites in Scotland. Single finds also present problems as many of these may well not be in primary locations, spread by later manuring or other activities.

The current distribution of material is very coastal, and likely influenced by modern bias (Palaeolithic and Mesolithic panel 6.1). We need to examine the interior of the country, including not just the montane areas, but also the gentler topography of glens and access routes. There are exceptions, for example at Loch Garten, Badenoch and Strathspey (MHG51764), and elsewhere in Scotland inland sites have also been identified (Warren et al 2018; Ward 20102017; Wickham-Jones et al 2020).  Finally, of course, we need to consider how relative sea-level change may have skewed the picture. Intertidal sites such as Lub Dubh Aird (MHG5490; Hardy et al 2015), and Clachan Harbour (MHG52892; Ballin et al. 2010) act as a reminder that the sites we find on land do not reflect the original archaeological resource. Examination of forestry planting may provide insights, as has been demonstrated by the Biggar Archaeology Group in South Lanarkshire (Ward 2017), and should be encouraged, especially in areas destined for new planting.

The major investigations in Highlands have been very much centred on the more southerly areas of the west coast, but increasingly there has been more attention to the east with fieldwalking finds from Caithness, Easter Ross and Inverness and the Tarradale through Time project. Excavation evidence around Inverness is almost all from developer-funded studies which carry their own limitations, and at present can only suggest generalised activity. Exceptions are a shell midden at Muirtown (MHG3741) and lithic working at Castle Street (MHG3673; Wordsworth 1985). It is likely that development has destroyed much of the evidence near the Inverness shore.


There is relatively little evidence for Mesolithic structures throughout Scotland (see Wickham-Jones 2004; Palaeolithic and Mesolithic panel 4.1.2; Robertson 2013). While in the last decades more substantial evidence of hut-like structures has been found in southern Scotland (Mithen and Wicks 2018), only from Camas Daraich (MHG29196; Hardy and Estevez 2014), Kinloch, Rum (MHG3987; Wickham-Jones 1990) and Berriedale Braes, Caithness (Peteranna & Williamson 2018) have structures been proposed for the Highlands.

The use of caves and rockshelters is well documented in the Highlands on the west coast, (eg by the Scotland’s First Settlers Project; Case study Scotland’s First Settlers Project; Hardy and Wickhayesm-Jones 2009), and there are hints of early activity at Smoo Caves in northwest Sutherland (Pollard 2005, 8). Caves hold great potential for preserving Mesolithic activity. No evidence survives of east coast use of caves, but deglaciation and sea level changes are likely to have resulted in some preservation under water, as is the case to the west. However, the SFS project showed that in their study area most Mesolithic and early Prehistoric sites were not generally large rockshelters, but rather open air scatters or undiagnostic sites. This has implications on how we should prospect for sites in the future (Hardy and Wickham-Jones 2009, 9.3).


Case Study: An Corran

Case Study: Scotland’s First Settlers Project

Case Study: Sand

Case Study: Tarradale through Time

Case Study: Kinloch Rum